Mood Disorders refer to a group of emotional disturbances associated with serious and persistent difficulty in maintaining an even productive emotional state. The clinical picture is dominated by extreme and inappropriate emotional responses especially of extreme elation or depression. Mania which is characterized by intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria and depression which involves feeling of extraordinary sadness and dejection are two key states of mood disorder.
DSM – IV mentions Unipolar and Bipolar disorders as two prominent forms of mood disorders. In Unipolar form of disorder which is much more frequent, the person experiences only depressive episodes and in Bipolar form of disorder the person experiences both manic and depressive episodes.
Unipolar disorders include depression of mild to moderate degree in the form of disorders of Dysthymia and Adjustment disorder with depressed mood as well as very severe depressive disorder in the form of Major depressive disorder. The core symptoms for all categories happen to be the same but they may vary only in duration and severity. The common systems are –
- Loss of Initiative.
- Feelings of Hopelessness and Worthlessness.
- Appetite Loss or Overeating.
- Insomnia and Hypersomnia.
- Psychomotor Retardation.
- Difficulties in Concentration.
- Difficulties in DM.
- Diminished interest in almost all activities most of the day.
- Fatigue of Loss of Energy every day.
- Recurrent thoughts of death.