Psychological and Interpersonal Factors in Schizophrenia
Followings are the main Psychological and Interpersonal Factors in schizophrenia-
- Early Psychic Trauma increased Vulnerability –
Karl Menninger found that deep hurts that the individual has suffered during his childhood or adolescence make the individual tense and bitter. He comes to realize the world as hostile, withdrawn from it, and starts hallucinating.
- Schizophrenic Parenting
Many studies have examined the parents of schizophrenic; mothers of male patients; termed as schizophrenic, these mothers were found to be rejecting, dominating, cold, overprotective, and impervious to the feelings and needs of others.
Fromm Reichmann found that such mothers while on one hand rejected the child on the other hand tended to dominate and overprotect the child making the child dependent.
- Destructive Family Interaction –
Lidz etal in their study studied in families with schizophrenic offsprings and they failed to find even a single family that was well integrated. In about 8 out of 14 families couples lived in a state of chronic discord where the continuation of marriage was constantly threatened.
Lidz etal from their studies as well as the review of the number of other studies concluded male schizophrenics came from families with passive ineffectual father and disturbed engulfing father. In over half of the families that they studied, one of the parents was seriously emotionally disturbed. There was a great deal of reality distortion in the family. The net result was that the child got training in irrationality and maladaptive behavior.
Kaufman found that in most families having schizophrenic children parents are themselves emotionally disturbed.
- Faulty Communication –
Gregory Bateson was the first psychologist to emphasize upon conflicting and confusing nature of communication among the members of schizophrenic families. He used to term ‘double bind’ to describe such pattern. Double binds are naturally incompatible behavior or demands by parents.
Singer & Wynne have defined the communication and thinking patterns in schizophrenic families as amorphous and fragmented.
- Pseudo Mutuality and Role Inflexibility –
Wynne etal found that family relationship had an appearance of mutual understanding but was not so actually a condition termed as Pseudo Mutuality.
They also found that rigidity in family role structure tended a depersonalize the child blocking his growth towards maturity.
- Excessive Life Stress and Decompensating –
Brown found a marked increase in the severity of life stress during the 10 week period prior to person’s schizophrenic breakdown. Their problems typically centered around the interpersonal relationship.
- Faulty Learning –
- Conditioning – early psychic trauma and increased vulnerability.
- Observation Learning – faulty parental model.