The problem of Juvenile Delinquency and Adult Crime are the outgrowth of the general process of social disorganization. They are the product and not the cause of social disorganization although they may themselves contribute for further disorganization and produce more problems.
Jcrsild, Brook & Brook define “Juvenile Delinquent as a young person (usually 18 years or younger) who has committed by an adult would be punishable by law”.
Bhatia stated that “When young people below the age of 18 years indulge in criminal and antisocial behavior it is referred to as Juvenile Delinquency ”.
Cloward & Chlin have called “Delinquent Act as an behavior that violates basic norms of the society and when it is officially known, it evokes a judgment by agents of criminal justice that such norms have been violated”.
A number of investigators have attempted to ‘type’ delinquents in terms of pervasive patterns of personal pathology. These types also reveal the other causative factors (other than family and parental factors) which may constitute the problem of delinquency. These types are as follows –
Organic Delinquent –
In distinct minority of cases (about 1%) brain pathology may result in lowered inhibitory control and a tendency towards episodes of violence. These youths are often hyperactive impulsive and emotionally unstable and unable to inhibit themselves when strongly stimulated.
Mentally Retarded Delinquent –
In some 5% of delinquents low intelligence appears to be of casual significance. Here the individual may be unable to foresee the probable consequences of his action or understand their significance.
Neurotic Delinquent –
An estimated 3 – 5% of delinquent behavior appears to be directly associated with neurotic disorders. Delinquent acts that take form of a compulsion, such as stealing and peeping etc. come under this category.
Psychotic Delinquent –
In delinquent acts associated with psychotic behavior there is often a pattern of prolonged turmoil and emotional hurt, culminating after a long frustration in an outburst of violent behaviors.
Sociopathic Delinquent –
A sizeable number of habitual delinquents appear to share the traits typical of a antisocial or psychopathic personality. They are impulsive defiant, resentful remorseless and devoid of conscience.
Subcultural Delinquent –
Here the delinquent belongs to a subgroup whose values do not confirm to those of larger society and as a result the subculture often encourages the individual to engage in delinquent behavior and rewards him when he does so.