Bipolar Mental Disorder
People suffering from bipolar mental disorder usually experience periods of depression as well as periods of either extremely mood known as mania or mixed episodes in which mania and depression alternate so rapidly that they are experienced within the same day.
In most cases, women with bipolar disorder experience depression before the first manic phase, however men with bipolar disorder are likely to have manic episodes first.
Several people experiences a period of normality in between the episodes of Depression of Mania.
Manic episodes can develop rapidly, in some cases in matters of hours and must last for at least a week to be officially defined as manic episode. The person displays an abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood along with unlimited energy and enthusiasm for unrealistic goals. Psychomotor over activity inflated sense of self – esteem and delusion grandeur may also occur confusion, memory loss and even suicide is not uncommon especially in extreme cases. Other characteristics include –
- Flight of idea.
- Decrease need for sleep.
- Pressure to keep talking.
The clinical picture in depressive episodes is just the reverse marked by symptoms such as loss of initiative, social withdrawal insomnia, loss of enthusiasm, low self-concept, and psychomotor retardation (in some cases psychomotor agitation).
Classification of Bipolar Disorders –
DSM – IV uses Label Bipolar Disorder I, for cases where there is full blown manic symptoms usually accompanied by one or more periods of major depression ⅔ patients diagnosed as Bipolar I.
Bipolar II disorder refer to cases in which a major depressive episode has occurred in addition to a period in which manic episodes are mild or hypomanic non serious enough to interfere with the person’s social functioning or to require hospitalization even though they are obvious and irritating to others.
Cyclothymic Disorder –
This is a form of bipolar disorder in which mood fluctuate over a long period of two or more years in an adult and one or more year in children, but neither depressive or manic phase is as severe as Bipolar I or II disorders. Cyclothymic disorder suggests less severe but chronic mood disturbance. In cyclothymic disorder, periods of elevated mood never reach the state of elation commonly associated with mania and low moods neither warrant a diagnosis of major depressive disorder nor interfere significantly with daily functioning.